Anorexia:Causes Signs And Treatment

What is Anorexia?

Anorexia Nervosa is a psychological and possibly life-threatening eating disorder defined by an extremely low body weight relative to stature (this is called BMI [Body Mass Index] and is a function of an individual’s height and weight), extreme and needless weight loss, illogical fear of weight gain, and distorted perception of self-image and body.

Additionally, women and men who suffer from anorexia nervosa exemplify a fixation with a thin figure and abnormal eating patterns. Anorexia nervosa is interchangeable with the term anorexia, which refers to self-starvation and lack of appetite.

Major Types of Anorexia

There are two common types of anorexia, which are as follows:

  • Binge/Purge Type – The individual suffering from this type of eating disorder, will purge when he or she eats. This is typically a result of the overwhelming feelings of guilt a sufferer would experience in relation to eating; they compensate by vomiting, abusing laxatives, or excessively exercising.
  • Restrictive – In this form, the individual will fiercely limit the quantity of food consumed, characteristically ingesting a minimal amount that is well below their body’s caloric needs, effectively slowly starving him or herself.

Though two classifications of anorexia nervosa exist, both types exhibit similar symptoms, such as irrational fear of weight gain and abnormal eating patterns.

Causes of Anorexia

Anorexia is not a simple disorder. It has many symptoms and effects, and its causes are complex as well. Currently, it is thought that anorexia nervosa develops as a result of multiple factors, both biological and environmental.

Examples of environmental factors that would contribute to the occurrence of this eating disorder are:

  • The effects of the thinness culture in media, that constantly reinforce thin people as ideal stereotypes
  • Professions and careers that promote being thin and weight loss, such as ballet and modeling
  • Family and childhood traumas: childhood sexual abuse, severe trauma
  • Peer pressure among friends and co-workers to be thin or be sexy.

Examples of biological factors include:

  • Irregular hormone functions
  • Genetics (the tie between anorexia and one’s genes is still being heavily researched, but we know that genetics is a part of the story).
  • Nutritional deficiencies

    Anorexia Signs & Symptoms

    An individual suffering from anorexia nervosa may reveal one or several signs and symptoms such as:

    • Chronic dieting despite being hazardously underweight
    • Obsession with calories and fat contents of food
    • Engaging in ritualistic eating patterns, such as cutting food into tiny pieces, eating alone, and/or hiding food
    • Continued fixation with food, recipes, or cooking; the individual may cook intricate meals for others but refrain from partaking
    • Amenorrhea: an abnormal absence of menstruation, or loss of 3 consecutive menstrual cycles
    • Depression or lethargic stage
    • Development of lanugo: soft, fine hair that grows on face and body
    • Reported sensation of feeling cold, particularly in extremities
    • Loss or thinning of hair
    • Avoidance of social functions, family, and friends. May become isolated and withdrawn
    Dieting Vs. Anorexia

    Though the restrictive eating patterns that characterize anorexia nervosa are similar to dieting behaviors, there are stark differences between the two. The effects of the extreme behaviors resulting from anorexia nervosa are far more devastating and consequential than dieting.

    While someone may diet in an attempt to control weight, anorexia nervosa is often an attempt to gain control over one’s life and emotions, especially in the light of traumatic events or a chaotic environment.

    While someone might diet in an attempt to lose weight as the primary goal, in anorexia they may diet because they perceive losing weight as a way to achieve happiness and self-mastery.

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    Given the complexities of this eating disorder, a professional treatment team involving medical doctors, dietitians, and therapists is necessary for the recovery from this eating disorder. Effective, holistic eating disorder treatment of anorexia involves three necessary components:

    • Medical: The highest priority in the treatment of anorexia nervosa is addressing any serious health issues that may have resulted from malnutrition, such as an unstable heartbeat.
    • Nutritional: This component encompasses weight restoration, implementation and supervision of a tailored meal plan, and education about normal eating patterns.
    • Therapy: The goal of this part of treatment is to recognize underlying issues associated with the eating disorder, address and heal from traumatic life events, learn healthier coping skills and further develop the capacity to express and deal with emotions.

    (H/T):eatingdisorderhope.com

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